|Melissa Brall||McCutcheon, George Barr: Graustark|
|Assignment 1: Bibliographic Description|
|1. First Edition Publication Information||George Barr McCutcheon. Graustark: The Story of a Love Behind a Throne.
Eldridge Court, Chicago: Herbert S. Stone & Co., 1901.
Copyright Statements: 1901 by Herbert S. Stone & Co.
1902 by Grace Hayward.
1909 by Richard Ferris, Los Angeles
1915 by Herbert S. Stone & Co.
1924 by Grace Hayward Gatts
No copyright was ever granted to the author.
Parallel First Editions:
In England: GRAUSTARK. The Story of a Love Behind a Throne. Grant Richards: London, 1902.pp.459
In Canada: GRAUSTARK. The Story of a Love Behind a Throne. McLeon and Allen: Toronto, 1903.pp.459
|2. First Edition in Cloth, Paper, or Both?||The first American edition is published in trade cloth binding.|
|4. Pagination||236 leaves, pp.1-259|
|5. Edited and/or Introduced?||N/A|
|6. Illustrated?||This first edition is very plain; there are no illustrated plates.
There is one colorful vignette. The vignette is bright orange and white, and represents the Herbert S. Stone & Co. publisher's symbol.
|8. General Appearance||Presentation of Text On Page: Wide margins contribute to ease of reading. Amount of space between lines of text varies.
Measurement of Page: 7.5"x 4.75"
Measurement of margins:Top & Side, 1". Bottom, 2"
Space with text per page: 4.5"x 3"
Type Style: Serif
Further Description of Typography: Extremely readable, clearly printed. No type description noted on verso of title page or colophon.
Additional Comments: The overall appearance of the book is fair. The binding is smooth and care-worn at edges, suggesting a well-used, well travelled
specimen. One deep crack in the binding on the right side of the spine. Pages are roughly cut on the foredge and bottom.
|9. Image of Sample Chapter Page||A1919990503193251.jpg|
|10. Description of Paper||Wove paper with an even, granulated texture.
The book consists of the same paper stock throughout. The paper has preverved well without foxing or staining. However, the pages are slightly yellowed and there are loosening tears located between the endpapers and the first and last leaves of the book, probably indicative of much use.
|11. Description of Binding||Bluish cloth with dotted-line grain. No dust jacket. The cover is stamped in non-gilt white with the title, subtitle, and two illustrations. The subtitle is placed left of center to accomodate the illustrations, which are meant to resemble the view from a castle window and a stone floor within the castle. One-eighth of an inch from each edge of the cover, four thin rules are stamped in non-gilt white,forming a square frame for the titles and illustrations.
Paper: Top edge has gilt. Uncut foredge and bottom.
Transcription of Spine: GRAUSTARK | by | G. B.| McCutcheon | Stone | Chicago
Transcription of front cover: GRAUSTARK | THE | STORY | OF A | LOVE | BEHIND | A | THRONE | by | G.B. McCUTCHEON
|12. Title Page Transcription||Recto: GRAUSTARK | THE STORY OF A LOVE | BEHIND A THRONE |
BY | George Barr McCutcheon | Herbert S. Stone and Company |
Eldridge Court, Chicago | MDCCCCI
Verso: COPYRIGHT, 1901, BY | HERBERT S. STONE & CO.
|13. Image of Title Page||A11319990503193251.jpg|
|14. Manuscript Holdings||Beinecke Library
New Haven, CT 06520
|15. Other||Copy specific information on provenance:
Inscritpion in delicate cursive on the first front flyleaf: Fron Cecil to Saud | Merry Xmas 1901.
Below the inscription is written in different handwriting, probably by a bookseller:
Author's first book | 10 | 1st ed. 2nd issue?
|Assignment 2: Publication History|
|1. Other Editions:||There were no other editions by the original publisher, Herbert S. Stone & Co. The copyright was released to Dodd, Mead and Co. upon the folding of H.|
S. Stone, and the book was reprinted by them in a second edition.
|2. Image of Cover Art||A2219990503193709.jpg|
|3. Sample Illustration||A2319990503195631.jpg|
|4. First Edition printings or impressions?||Probably about 15 first edition printings or impressions.|
A number was not clearly given in any source discovered. Results deduced from dates of sales adds, approximation of how much needed to be produced to keep up with the volume of demand.
|5. Editions from other publishers?||1901. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. 399 p.; 20 cm. Illustrated with sc|
enes from the play.[Photoplay edition].
1901. New York: American News. 459 p. 19 cm. Special limited edition.
1902. London: Grant Richards. pp.459 [1st English edition]
1903. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. 459 p. 20 cm.
1903. Toronto: McLeon & Allen. 459 p. [1st canadian edition]
1905. Dodd, Mead & Co. 2 p.l., 459 p., 1 1. 19 cm.
1907. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. 2 p.l.,459 p., 1 l.; 19cm.
1909. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. 459 p.; 20 cm.
1913. Decorah, Iowa: B. Anundsen. 335 p.; 17 cm. Norwegian translation.
1916. New York: C. Scribner's Sons. 376 p. front. (port.) 19 cm.
1926. New York and London: S. French. by Gatts, Grace (Hayward) Mrs. Standard library edition. 74 p. plates, diagrs. 20 cm.
1971. St. Clair Shores, Mich. 459 p. 21 cm.
1976. (fill in++++) Buccaneer Books.
|6. Last date in print?||1976. In USA.|
|7. Total copies sold?||Approximately 1,500,000. (Source: Golden Multitudes by Frank Mott, 1947)|
|8. Sales by year?||Exact figures not found,however, this information was found in an approximate number as in advertised sales quotes as well |
as popularity point scores as compiled by Irving Harlow Hart, Professor of Rural Education at Iowa State Teacher's College. These statsitics are the following:
Publisher's Advert, September 1901: 17,262 copies sold during first ten days of September 1901.
Publisher's Advert, September 1901: 98,000 copies sold
Publisher's Advert, September 1901: "Nearing its, 100th Thousand and Selling Better Every Day."
The Publisher's Weekly, February 5, 1927: "Fiction Fashions from 1895-1926 by Irving H. Hart; Ranked 2nd on chart "Most Popular Authors of Fiction". Additional Statistics from Hart, in 10 year popularity categories: 1897-1906: Score 13413; 1898-1907: Sco
re 16994; 1899-1908: Score 19884; 1900-1909: (#1 on chart) Score 22680.; 1901-1910 (#1 on chart) Score 24914; 1902-1911 (#1 on chart) Score 24211; 1913-1912 (#1 on chart) Score 24660; 1904-1913: (#1 on chart)Score 24274; 1905-1914 (#1 on chart) Score 2369
8; 1906-1915 (#2 on chart) score 20080.
George Barr McCutcheon did not drop off of Irving H. Hart's chart until 1917, which reflects the popularity of his subsequent novels as as "Graustark."
|10. Image of sample advertisement||A21019990503200535.jpg|
|11. Other promotion?||Book Boosting!|
Nowadays it is safe to assume that unless a book is "boosted by means of prizes and advertising novelties, it cannot be classed as real literature. "Graustark" is, we believe, the best novel issued in years, and to impress its literary and artistic metir
upon the reading public, we are giving the following prizes. *** PRIZES PRIZES PRIZES PRIZES: Many people think that the heroine of "Graustark" is the most charming character in recent fiction. To the person who thinks the hardest we will give $00,000.
Forty-six novelists or more have tried to write as good a story as "Graustark" and have failed. To the person who guesses nearest the excuses of each of these authors we will give a hearty cheer. *** To the person who can scan the chapter headings of "Gra
ustark" while taking only eitht breaths we will give a standing ovation.
Mr. McCutcheon wrote "Graustark" in 287 days. To the person who tells us in which particular day he wrote the greatest number of words, and if so, why not, we will gladly yield the palm. *** ADVERTISING NOVELTIES.ADVERTISING NOVELTIES, ADVERTISING NOVELTI
ES: We have a number of choice talking parrots, which have been taught to speak only the one word - "Graustark." There is nothing like a parrot on a stack of books to make a book popular. *** We will send on the application of any dealer a corps of bagpip
ers, who will play "The Graustark March" in front of a store. ***For a window display there is nothing so effective as our wax figure of the villain of "Graustark," which melts every hour. *** We will install in any window free of charge our automatic sco
re sign, which registers the sale of "Graustark." It is wound up to add a new cipher every twnety minutes. *** A lady in a tank of real water reading "Graustark" under the surface, a juggler juddling eighteen copies of the book simultaneously, and a blind
boy reciting the story backward while standing on his head, make splendid window displays, and cannot fail to convince the publis that "GRAUSTARK IS THE BEST NOVEL OF THE YEAR"
|12. Performances in other media?||SILENT FILM MEDIA PRODUCTIONS:|
26 April 1915. Graustark. Essanay Film Mfg. Company. Distributed by V-S-L-E, Inc. Black and White. 6 reels. Director: Fred E. Wright. Camera: Jackson J. Rose. Cast: Beverly Bayne (Princess Yetive) and Francis X. Bushman (Grenfall Lorry).
30 August 1925. Graustark. Joseph M. Schneck Productions. Distributed by First National Pictures. Black & White. Silent. 7 reels, 5,900 ft. Director: Dimitri Buchowetzki. Photographed by Tony Gaudio. Cast: Norma Talmidge (Princess Yetive) and Eugene O'Br
ien (Grenfall Lorry).
|13. Translations?||[Norwegian] McCutcheon, George Barr. GRAUSTARK. B. Anundsen. Decorah, Iowa: 1913. 335p.;17 cm.|
Authoritative sources also found to support translations into Danish, Italian and Spanish, however no bibliographical records were uncovered in bibliographic sources.
|15. Sequels or Prequels?||Yes. Sequels: Beverley of Graustark (1904) The Prince of Graustark (1914) The Inn of the Hawk and Raven: A Tale of Old Graustark (1927)|
|Assignment 3: Brief Biography|
|Royalty! Murder! Trials! Weddings! Imaginary Kingdoms!These were the words used to describe the film adaptation of the novel "Graustark: The Story of a Love Behind a Throne, written by George Barr McCutcheon. While writing romantic, melodramatic bestsellers, the real life of George Barr McCutcheon was quite different than that of his imagined literary characters. However, his life did parallel his art and interests in some ways, and millions in the early 20th century appreciated this art.George Barr McCutcheon was born to two well-read, contemporary young parents named John Barr and Clara Glick McCutcheon on July 26, 1866. George was the first-born of the family, and the birth event took place at the rural McCutcheon homestead located near Lafayette, Indiana. Clara and Barr were destined to raise George in an intellectually stimulating home environment, based on the contribution of formal schooling on Clara's side and wide readership and interest in the theatre from John Barr. George passed a happy childhood along with younger brothers John, Ben, and baby sister Jessie. As a child George enjoyed writing his own plays and stories as well as taking parts in these plays, produced with his brothers and sister. George's first work, Panther Jim, was completed in 1874. His subsequent works from the beginning he often dedicated "To Mother", a person with whom he had a close relationship throughout his life. George developed a love for reading dime novels (forbidden reading by his parents) at this time, which would remain an admitted enjoyable activity throughout his life. George's learning experiences at the Lafayette Ford Elementary School were supplemented by his parent's collection of books at home, including Shakespeare, Plutarch, Ralph Waldo Emerson, Robert Louis Stevenson, Homer's epics and The Bible. The early exposure to good works of literature encouraged George to pursue reading. One of his favorite authors later became Thackeray, whose life patterns he would imitate through work and choices in marriage.|
George learned a lot about theatre and drama by attending productions, one or two each week, at the Opera House in active downtown Lafayette. The Opera House was within convenient walking distance to George's new home when the family moved to Lafayette upon George's father's acceptance of a job as Lafayette sheriff. The Opera House offered a variety of entertainments, including opera, vaudeville, lectures and film. As George neared college age he began taking parts in plays with the Lafayette Dramatic Club and later the Purdue Dramatic Society. Additionally, as a young man he proudly performed in the Opera House production of the musical drama Queen Esther on November 21, 1890.
George Barr McCutcheon was a largely self-taught scholar even though he had exposure to good primary schools and attended Purdue University as a freshman 2 years younger than his respective classmates. George accepted a job at Purdue's Lafayette Journal writing reviews of local productions. He was critical of works he did not feel were well done or substantive but was very generous in praising quality theatre regardless of popular opinion or producer's promotion. However, GBMc, as George was later called by critics and admirers alike, flunked out of college as a sophomore was because he put most of his effort into writing activities outside of class. Soon after leaving Purdue he would accept a newspaper job with the Lafayette Courier, a career which would progress over time into a position as City Editor in March of 1893. He had a 10 hour a day, six day a week work schedule at the Courier office, and usually used his time after returning home to work on his own personal writing. His first novel, entitled Graustark: The Story of a Love Behind a Throne, was begun behind his desk at the Lafayette Courier, and was completed in 287 days. Graustark proved to make the McCutcheon name known to the readers of romantic novels, launched his professional writing career, and provided him with enough stability to enable him to decide to resign from his job on June 1, 1902, move to Chicago and pursue writing full time. It was at this point that a career began which would end with a total output of over 40 published works. The romance novels of GBMc's "Graustark Series" would be especially widely published. However, his many serious plays and intended parodies, the first of which was Judith Verne (1885), would be continuously rejected by publisher's in fact of the great quality which is evident in it. These would be rejections which seemed to distress GBMc in a way which he subtly showed in some of the statements he made about his best-sellers. In spite of the fact that Graustark and its subsequent sequels, including Beverley of Greystark (1904) and The Inn of the Hawk and Raven (1927) were so carefully crafted to be set in believable, yet fictitious, European countries created by the author, GBMc in fact made only one trip to Europe in his lifetime, and this trip was taken after many of his novels were written. Graustark: The Story of a Love Behind a Throne had a setting which was so scrupulously created, down to the very last detail as was GBMc's habit, that his readers would often assume that it was in fact a real place and contact him for travel assistance.
GBMc finally married in 1904. His bride, Marie Van Antwerp Fay, was a former widow with a young son, William. Another son was born to G.B. Mc. and Marie on December 1, 1909, but the infant died within hours of his birth. The process was also physically difficult for Marie because of her age, and she nearly did not recover. Although George and Marie's marriage endured until his death in 1928, he was in fact most in love with the writing life. He kept a strict schedule, writing 1,000 or more words per day. McCutcheon's literary ledger, which is housed at the Beinecke Library, is the most complete record of all aspects of his career. The ledger includes start and finish dates of novels, royalties paid, details of serialization, adaptation to the stage and screen, in fact, essentially all of the details of his professional career, and all in GBMc's neat handwriting.
When he was not writing, GBMc and Marie enjoyed sharing time and conversation with contemporaries who were members of the Dutch Treat Club, a literary group that routinely met in New York City. Some famous friends of GBMc and Marie from this club and other literary groups were George Ade and Booth Tarkingtion. G.B. Mc. held several professional posts and was known in literature as a member of the Hoosier school of writers. GBMc was also a bibliomaniac, collecting a very complete collection of first edition Victorian novels, including works by Dickens, Thackeray, Hardy and Kipling. He also proved to have an interest in American and Dutch art.
George Barr McCutcheon's life was cut short at the age of 60 when he died suddenly while at a luncheon of the Dutch Treat Club in New York's Hotel Martinique. The cause of death was heart failure and it happened suddenly and unexpectedly. His body was returned to Lafayette to his stepson, William Fay, where it was cremated and the ashes were interred. The Lafayette Journal and Courier covered the news of his death in detail the following day. It was noted honorably in the following way: George Barr McCutcheon's death marks the passing of one of the last of the great romanticists among American authors. Works Cited
"Dead Novelist" p.1 The Lafayette Journal & Courier, Evening Edition. Wednesday, October 24,1928.
Lazarus, Arnold Leslie. BEYOND GRAUSTARK: GEORGE BARR MCCUTCHEON, PLAYWRIGHT DISCOVERED. Point Washington, N.Y.: Kennikat Press, 1981.
Malone, Duman. Ed. DICTIONARY OF AMERICAN BIOGRAPHY, V.12. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1933. pp.12-13.
McCutcheon, George Barr. BOOKS ONCE WERE MEN: AN ESSAY FOR BOOKLOVERS . New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. 1931
McCutcheon, George Barr. A CHOICE LITTLE COLLECTION: PAINTINGS BY THE AMERICAN MASTERS AND A NUMBER OF EXAMPLES OF THE BARBIZON AND DUTCH SCHOOLS. New York: American Art Association, 1929.
McCutcheon, George Barr. THE RENOWNED COLLECTION OF FIRST EDITIONS OF CHARLES DICKENS AND WILLIAM MAKEPEACE THACKERAY. New York: American Art Association, 1926.
Moriarty, John H. "Hoosiers Sell Best". Indiana Quarterly for Bookmen. V.3.#1 January 1947.
"The McCutcheon Sale of Hardy, Kipling and Stevenson Collections." Publisher's Weelky. March 23, 1925. pp.1773-1775.
West, James L. W., III. "George Barr McCutcheon's Literary Ledger". Yale Univeristy Library Gazette. 1985 V.59 (3-4): 155-161
|George Barr McCutcheon and a Graustarkian Legacy|
The time period of early 20th century America set a stage upon which to receive George Barr McCutcheon's Graustark: The Story of a Love Behind a Throne. As is usually the case, there are reasons why certain works of literature emerge at certain times in history. Writing, like other forms of art, is usually accepted as being the result of a combination of the author's place in history, the world, and spirit. The same seems to be true with McCutcheon's Graustark. However, the reasons can and must be analyzed a little differently at the present time in history, as we are nearly 100 years past the date in which Graustark was first conceived of and written. We can dissect all points fully as well as from an 'after the fact', perspective, neither of which was possible for the author or his contemporary critics. An analysis of this kind is a valuable one when considering the novel as a whole, as well as its reception history. Through the paragraphs that will follow, the novel Graustark: The Story of a Love Behind a Throne will be placed in the context of its time and place as well as the interpretation of the influences and intentions of its author. The ideas that Graustark: The Story of a Love Behind a Throne was a combination of the author's reactions to his own important opinions and the history of the early 20th century will be supported. Additionally, the concept of the "Graustarkian Novel" as defined by author Raymond P. Wallace will be added, with commentary on its significance and his opinions, expressed over 80 years after the book was first reviewed.
George Barr McCutcheon was an interesting man. His personality was both meticulous and creative, a rarely compatible combination for many professions of the time. However, when writing Graustark and other subsequent works of romantic fiction, McCutcheon was able fully express both of these sides of him. Essentially, he was able to re-experience both his love for drama and it's emotion while staying within the masculine norms of detail, extreme organization, voluminous productiveness, and professional/personal success. The former was, of course, accomplished through the general plot and adventurous theme of the story itself and the process of its creation. The second was accomplished through the detailed writing schedule and creation, map and all, of a fictitious place in which to set the adventure. These two conclusions can be supported by the fact that the late years of the 19th century must have been times of great imagination and dreams. Graustark was, after all, published only one year after the turn of the century as the brainchild of a man who had grown up watching the old century end and a new one begin. It could perhaps have been, in fact, the newness of the century which influenced McCutcheon to created a new and fictitious country on a far away continent which he had never visited, in a type of romantic fiction which had not yet been established concretely in America as a genre. Almost all of the traits previously mentioned are qualities which George McCutcheon was able to prove about himself to himself in his real life habits; the other he felt he had to express through the story of his first Graustark hero, Grenfall Lorry. (1)
The author most likely enjoyed creating the bestsellers not only for their ability to make him very wealthy, but also because he enjoyed the process of writing about his own, probably unconscious, desire to live the part of the hero. In the reality of the true Graustarkian novel (2) good conquers evil and the woman loves the man. McCutcheon's real life world included the less-than-enthusiastic reception of his romantic overtures to women he admired (3), often from afar to avoid the chance of outright rejection. In the larger context of history, the idea of a heroic, romantic and europeanesque man was highly in fashion. Because of the limits of technology on travel, Europe was still considered to be a far-away land of some mystery, with exciting possibilities. Additionally, American society had not yet experienced the sobering years of the Great Depression, the stock market crash, or a world war, all of which were ahead and as yet unrelated to daily worries. So, there was a particular adventure in the problems of the Graustark characters. The sum total of the realistic portrayal of the characters, the fictitious, far-off country and the 'escapist' style would prove to make McCutcheon the author of best-selling fiction.
The last important point to include in a critical analysis of Graustark: the Story of a Love Behind a Throne is the summary of the many critical responses McCutcheon received from his contemporaries and critics of his work. his Graustark tales were described as "potboilers" and lesser works literary art, even something to fear for the future degeneration of good writing. In an article from an early 1901 issue of the Bookman, a more refined literary record, author W.D. Howells wrote (before Graustark was even written) an essay of warnings regarding the genre in which McCutcheon's Graustark would be fit: (4)
"Tobe sure, one must not take the books too seriously. When their manners and their morals were the property of the dime novels, they sometimes inspired..."
"The vast majority of readers will rise from the book as guiltless, but that such fiction will in a measure and for a while debauch the minds and through their minds the morals of their readers, is reasonably to be feared even by the optimist."
While Howells' view of the novel and its genre was echoed, although generally in a less severe tone, by many of the critics contemporary to McCutcheon. However, the more recent writer Raymond P. Wallace published a research article in 1987 entitled "Cardboard Kingdoms." The article discusses the presence of the fictitious country or town as the setting for works of fiction since 1870, which he sees as the advent of the genre style. Wallace connects all of the novels which he has included in his study, including Anthony Hope's The Prisoner of Zenda, to be classified as the "Graustarkian Novel" (5) In order for the novels to be considered a true Graustarkian Novel it had to have the following components:
1)A Fictitious country Setting
2) An Impending Threat to the government (usually royalty)
3) The Wicked Character
4) The Good, Intervening Stranger
5) The Remarkable Coincidence
6) The Chase
7) The Duel and Happy Ending (resulting in the marriage of the hero to female royalty).
Hope sums up his study in a good way in support of the entire genre of Gruaustarkian fiction in a way that would give George Barr McCutcheon as much of a feeling of success as he would probably have received if the non-experimental Frohman cinema had finally accepted one of his plays for production (7):
"The Graustarkians are designed to move the heart and instill the sense of romance, rather than to exercise the mind. In a world largely devoid of such values, there is something undeniably stirring in the spectacle of a defeated Wicked Uncle being given a horse and a ten minute start for the border; or conversely, a dethroned king riding in hot haste or the frontier, with the reigns in his teeth and a satchelful of the crown jewels in one hand and his blazing revolver in the other. If reality is what is wanted, King Carol II of Rumania is said to have left his domain very much in this manner, except that he stood on the rear platform of his private train, with the satchel between his feet and a revolver in each hand"
Reading this quote George Barr McCutcheon would have considered himself a success and his novel writing a great contribution to the society of all time, as he should.
1. Grenfall Lorry was referred to as "large, broad and tall", three very important requirements for the romantic hero in examined editions of Graustark (1901 and 1906).
2. taken from Wallace, Raymond P. "Cardboard Kingdoms" San Jose studies, V.13 Spring, 1987.
3. Minnie Maddern, afamous actress in McCutcheon's youth, was worshiped by him from afar. At one point early in his young adulthood he mailed her a copy of one of his plays which she promptly insulted and disregarded. Lazarus, A. L. Beyond Graustark:
4. Howells, W.D. "The New Historical Romances." The Bookman, 1901. Pp.213-4.
5. Term Graustarkian Novel" given and list recorded from Wallace, Raymond P. "Cardboard Kingdoms" Pp.28-30.
|McCutcheon's Princess Yetive: The Bride||S1img19990503191213.jpg|
|The McCutcheon Extended Family: George Barr McCutcheon (3rd from left) Mrs. Barr McCutcheon (5th from left) Sitting, left to right: John T. |
McCutcheon, Ben McCutcheon, Hired Girl, Jessie McCutcheon
|George Barr McCutcheon's Literary Ledger: Contained all details of his writing and publishing career. Gold stamped Dodd, Mead & Co. on outside. Presently held at the Be|
ineke Library, Yale Univeristy. This page contains data for
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